C. F. Quate
Edward L. Ginzton Lab., Stanford Univ., Standard, CA 94205
In recent times the atomic force microscope and other scanning probes have emerged as formidable instruments for imaging insulating surfaces. They can be operated in air, in liquid, and in vacuum and they have had an impact in the fields of electrochemistry and in cellular biology. Here, focus will be on solid surfaces where the AFM has been successfully used to image a variety of surfaces that are difficult to study with the optical and electron microscopes. Topography and microroughness of silicon wafers will be used to illustrate the utility of this instrument. Surface modification on the atomic scale has been demonstrated for a variety of systems. In a second application the force microscope has been combined with other forms of microscopes. The combination provides the operation with a simple means of controlling the spacing between tip and sample throughout the scanning cycle. This principle is illustrated with a description of the near-field optical microscope as combined with the force microscope. This combination allows one to scan with the tip space 5 nm from the sample.