In recent years, new engine design for the transportation industry has occurred in an atmosphere of strict compliance with aggressive noise and vibration performance targets. The inevitable result is a growing arsenal of tools, methodologies, and experience in the design of quiet, smooth, high-performance engines. In this discussion, some of the key issues facing engine designers responsible for noise and vibration performance will be introduced. The discussion will focus on the application of some of the newest experimental and analytical tools which are applied to such complex issues as combustion noise, crankshaft to block interaction, valvetrain, and piston to cylinder contact forces. A particular emphasis will be placed on recent developments in combustion noise control and the future of the wholly analytical engine noise and vibration signature simulation model.